Eastern Europe and Russia, AP World History p.2

Vocabulary of Importance

Alexis Romanov- successor of Michael, big supporter of the chruch who fixed it after the Mongols

boyars- Russian aristocrats; possessed less political power than their counterparts in Western Europe

Catherine the Great- German-born Russian tsarina in the 18th century; ruled after assassination of her husband; gave appearance of enlightened rule; accepted Western cultural influence; maintained nobility as service aristocracy by granting them new power over peasantry.
Chancery of the Secret Police
Copernicus- Polish monk and astronomer (16th century); disproved Hellenistic belief that the earth was at the center of the universe 
Cossacks- peasants recruited to migrate to newly seized lands in Russia, particularly in south; combined agriculture with military conquests; spurred additional frontier conquests and settlements

Instruction of 1767- the document where Catherine demonstrated that like Peter the Great, she was a selective westernizer.
Ivan III (1440-1505); Also known as Ivan the Great; prince of Duchy of Moscow; claimed descent from Rurik; responsible for freeing Russia from Mongols after 1462; took title of tsar or Caesar-equivalent of emperor
Ivan IV (The Terrible) (1530-1584); Also known as Ivan the Terrible; confirmed power of tsarist autocracy by attacking authority of boyars (aristocrats); continued policy of Russian expansion; established contacts with western European commerce and culture.

Kremlin- magnificient palace like building in Russia

Old Believers-Russians who refused to accept the ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov (17th century); many exiled to Siberia or southern Russia, where they became part of Russian colonization. 
Ottomans- Turkic people who advanced from strongholds in Asia Minor during the 1350s; conquered large part of Balkans; unified under Mehmed I; captured Constantinople in 1453; established empire from Balkans that included most of the Arab world.

partitions of Poland- Division of Polish territory among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795; eliminated Poland as an independent state; part of the expansion of Russian influence in Eastern Europe. 
Peter I (The Great)- Son of Alexis Romanov; ruled from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; included more definite interest in changing selected aspects of economy and culture through imitation of western European models.
Peter III-rightful heir to the throne of Peter the Great, yet was unable to take the throne due to the fact that he was retarded
Pugachev rebellion- During the 1770s in reign of Catherine the Great; led by cossack Emelian Pugachev, who claimed to be legitimate tsar; eventually crushed; typical of peasant unrest during the 18th century and thereafter.

Romanov dynasty- Dynasty elected in 1613 at the end of the Time of Troubles; ruled Russia until 1917
Rurik- Legendary Scandinavian, regarded as founder of the first kingdom of Russia based in Kiev in 855 C.E.

serf- peasant agricultural laborers within the manorial system of the Middle ages; especially prevalent in Russia
St. Petersburg- created in 1703 by Peter the Great , and soon after made the new capital of Russia
Suleyman the Magnificent- the most successful of all the Ottoman sultans

Third Rome- Russian claim to be successor state to Roman and Byzantine empires; based in part on continuity of Orthodox chruch in Russia following the fall of Constantinople
Time of Troubles- Followed the death of Russian tsar ivan IV without heir early in 17th century; boyars attempted to use vacuum of power to reestablish their authority; ended with selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613

Westernization- enacted by Peter the Great, the act of making Russia more like Western Europe
Mariana A-Z., Emily A. 2/18/11