Eastern Europe and Russia, AP World History p.2

Ottomans v. Byzantines

Name of Conflict: Ottomans v. Byzantines
Time Period: 1265–1453
Type of Conflict: war, Ottomans trying to conquer the Byzantine Empire
Underlying Causes:
*Byzantium’s weakened state left it open for attacks.
*The Ottoman’s close proximity to Byzantium made it easy to send in raids.
Immediate Causes: Osman I rule over Ottman states started the conflicts.
Turning Points/Important Events:
*In 1282 Andronicus II took over leadership in Byzantium after his fathers death.
*Bursa was catured by the Ottomans in 1326
Ending Events: The Ottmans took control of Morea in 1460, and Trebizond in 1461.
End Result: The Byzantines were defeated in 1461.
Short-Term Effects: The pope called for another crusade which failed like the others after Pope Pius’s death in 1464
Long-Term Effects: Continuing Ottoman conquests brought more territory under their rule.

Arab attack on Byzantium

Name of Conflict: Arab attack on Byzantium
Time Period: 634–1180
Type of Conflict: siege
Underlying Causes: Abu Bakr came into power of the Arab states and led the attacks against Byzantium.
Immediate Causes: Information was leaked that Byzantium was preparing an attack; this led to the Arab’s preemptive attack on Byzantium.
Turning Points/Important Events: The Arabs captured Jerusalem in 637.
*The starts of the Muslim civil war in 656 gave Byzantium time to reform their army, and consolidate their weakened forces.
Ending Events: In 676, the Arabs were defeated while attempting a siege on Constantinople.
End Result: The Arab’s called off their siege and left Constantinople.
Short-Term Effects: the Arab’s suffered loss and a devastated fleet.
Long-Term Effects: Byzantium continued to renew its power until the Ottoman conquests in the 12th century.

The Mongol Conquest of Russia

Name of Conflict: Mongol Conquest of Russia
Time Period: 1236-1240
Type of Conflict: Conquest
Underlying Causes: The Mongol leader Genghis Khan sought after world conquest and invaded many nations including Russia.
Immediate Causes: n/a
Turning Points/Important Events: In 1238 the Mongols moved in to conquer the capital.In 1240 the Mongols captured Kiev.
Ending Events: The Mongols traveled and conquered along their way into Poland and Hungary.
End Result: the Mongol successfully conquered Russia while leaving their culture intact
Short-Term Effects: Russian cities were rearranged and their leaders subjugated to the rule of the Mongols.
Long-Term Effects: Russian political organization was changed forever as the capital was moved from Kiev to Moscow and later Russian political ideas were taken from Mongol influence.

The 4th Crusade

Name of Conflict: The 4th Crusade
Time Period: 1202-1204
Type of Conflict: Religious
Underlying Causes: After the third crusade very few interested in another crusade but Pope Innocent III still pushed for one.
Immediate Causes: the crusade began after the assembled knights attacked Zara, which was a Christian city but was still attacked it because it was the rival of Venice which was prepared to build ships for the crusaders if they complied.
Turning Points/important Events: The Crusaders sacked Constantinople in 1204. The attack on Zara was the opening conflict in the Crusade.
Ending Events: The sacking of Constantinople was the defining attack in the 4th crusade.
End Result: the crusade ending before ever even truly getting into the holy land.
Short-term Effects: the price of war led to weakened soldiers and poorer lords.
Long-term Effects: Constantinople could not withstand the coming barbarian invasions and fell 200 years later

The Eastern and Western Christianity Schism

Name of Conflict: Eastern and Western Christianity Schism
Time Period: 11th century
Type of Conflict: Religious rivalry
Underlying Causes: Simple differences between Christians in Eastern and Western Europe. Western Europe speaking Latin and Eastern Europe speaking Greek caused dissonance between the two Christian regions. Also important fundamental differences in chruch practices, such as the use of unleavened or leavened bread during mass.
Immediate Causes: 1378 - 1417
Turning Points/important Events: In 1054 Pope Leo IX and Patriarch Michael Cerularius began to excommunicate. This was considered the start of the schim. After the fall of Constantinople, Russia took up the title of the third Rome and eventually converted to the Orthodox Church
Ending Events: n/a
End Result: The churches are still separated to this day.
Short-term Effects: n/a
Long-term Effects: Christianity has never been fully united since as there have become many new views and churches to follow now.
Richard C. 1/28/11