Eastern Europe and Russia, AP World History p.2

Conflict Analyses

Punic Wars

Time Period: 264 B.C.E.-146 B.C.E.
Type of Conflict: Series of three wars
Underlying Causes: 1) Territorial expansion between the two empires 2) Roman expansion needed space and cities within Carthaginian control
Immediate Causes: Competition of power between Rome and Carthage became tense
Turing Points: 1) End of the first Punic war left Rome with the control of Sicily and the Carthaginian navy obliterated 2) During the second Punic War in an infamous act, Hannibal led he army across the Alps and crippled the Roman army.
Ending Events: Rome declared war on Carthage for a third time. This time they destroyed the city after a long siege. Carthage was destroyed and its inhabitants were killed.
End Result: 1) Carthage was destroyed and its territory was taken over by Rome 2) Rome's power and influence became unmatched by any civilization of the time
Short-Term Effects: The city was burned down and the fields were salted to prevent any crops from growing
Long-Term Effects: Rome's power grew unopposed due to the destruction of Carthage

Peloponnesian Wars

Time Period: 431 B.C.E.-404 B.C.E.
Type of Conflict: War between two city-states and their allies
Underlying Causes: 1) Sparta's fear of being overpowered by Athens 2) Constant tension between Greek city-states
Immediate Causes: Athens navy became the strongest of the Greek states. this power made the Spartans' fearful of Athens' immediate power.
Turing Points/Important Events: 1) A plague ravaged Athens and its territories in 430 leading to negative efects on its army and the citizens 2) In the same year of 430 Athens offered peace and an end to the war but Sparta refused. 3) The beginning of the war was made up mostly of Athenians carrying out city raids and the Spartans ravaging the territories of Attica. 4) After years of fighting the war became stale and the soldiers tired, in 421 Sparta and Athens made a truce which lasted six years and served its main purpose as a time for both sides to find allies.
Ending Events: Sparta built an enormous navy with the help of Persia. The fleet was finally able to defeat Athens and force them to surrender.
End Result: Athens was defeated and was forced to tear down walls around their cities and to give all but twelve ships to Sparta
Short-Term Effects: Athens' weakened state made it vulnerable and weaker than it had ever been.
Long-Term Effects: Athens was defeated and would never again return to its former glory and power.

Trojan War

Time Period: 1194 B.C.E.-1184 B.C.E.
Type of Conflict: Siege of the city of Troy
Underlying Causes: 1) Tension had been building for years between the two states including difficulties with trade. 2) Greece was greedy for Macedonian territories and was jealous of Troy's power and strong city
Immediate Causes: Helen was stolen from Sparta by Paris, and taken to Troy.
Turning Points: Troy was nearly impenetrable meaning that the siege was long lasting with little advances between the two sides.
Ending Events: The infamous Greek horse, which was carrying the soldiers that opened the gate to Troy was carried into the city. The Greeks proceeded to destroying the city.
End Result: The city of Troy was destroyed.
Short-Term Effects: The survivors were sold into slavery and teh soldiers returned to Sparta
Long-Term Effects: Little was known of Troy for many years after. Troy's legacy became a myth of sorts.
All analyses by Richard C., 12/15/10