Eastern Europe and Russia, AP World History p.2

Vocabulary of Importance

Agrarian Revolution- A change in farming methods that allowed for a greater production of food.
Alexander the Great-Successor of Philip II; successfully conquered Persian Empire prior to his death in 323 B.C.E.;attempted to combine Greek and Persian cultures.
Alexandria- One of the cities founded by and named for Alexander the Great; site of ancient Mediterranean's greatest library; center of literary studies.
Aristocracy- form of government in which a few of the most prominent citizens rule.
Aristotle- (384-322 B.C.E.) Greek philosopher; teacher of Alexander the Great; knowledge based on observetion of phenomena in material world.
Augustus Caesar- (63 B.C.E.- 14 C.E.) Name given to Octavian following defeat of Mark Anthony and Cleopatra; first emperor of Rome.

Babylonian- civilization in Lower Mesopotamia (central and southern Iraq), with Babylon as its capital.
Band-an unofficial association of people or groups
Battle of Marathon-battle in 490 BC in which the Athenians and their allies defeated the Persians
Battle of Thermopylae-battle in 480 BC; a Greek army under Leonidas was annihilated by the Persians who were trying to conquer Greece
Bronze Age- period between the Stone and Iron Ages, characterized by the manufacture and use of bronze tools and weapons
Byzantine Empire-  Eastern Half of Roman Empir following collapse of western half of old empire; retained Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek; later lost Palestine, Syria, and Egypt to Islam; capital at Constantinople.

Catal Huyuk- Early urban culture based on sedentary agriculture; located in modern southern Turkey; was larger in population than Jericho, had greater degree of social stratification
Carthage-an ancient city state on the north African coast near modern Tunis; founded by Phoenicians; destroyed and rebuilt by Romans; razed by Arabs in 697
Cicero-a Roman statesman and orator remembered for his mastery of Latin prose (106-43 BC)
Civilizations-a society in an advanced state of social development
City-States-an independent country whose territory consists of a city which is not administered as part of another local government.
Constantine- Emperor of Rome who stopped the persecution of Christians and in 324 made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire
Culture- tastes in art and manners that are favored by a social group
Cyrus the Great- king of Persia and founder of the Persian Empire (circa 600-529 BC)

Devi- Hindu mother goddess
Direct Democracy-theory of civics in which sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate.
Domestication-taming is the process whereby a population of animals or plants, through a process of selection, becomes accustomed to human provision and control

Euclid-Greek geometer (3rd century BC)

Galen-Greek anatomist whose theories formed the basis of European medicine until the Renaissance

Hammurabi-Babylonian king who codified the laws of Sumer and Mesopotamia
Hannibal-general who commanded the Carthaginian army in the second Punic War
Hellenistic Age- followed the conquests of Alexander the Great, Greek cultural influence and power was at its zenith in Europe and Asia.
Herodotus-ancient Greek known as the father of history
Homo Sapiens-bipedal primate having language and ability to make and use complex tools
Hunting and Gathering-Means of obtaining subsistence by human species prior to the adaptation of sedentary agriculture

Iliad and Odyssey-Two Greek epic poems attributed to Homer but possibly the work of many authors
Ionian, Doric, Corinthian-

Julius Caesar- conqueror of Gaul and master of Italy
Justinian-Byzantine emperor who held the eastern frontier of his empire against the Persians

Matrilineal-system in which lineage is traced through the mother and maternal ancestors
Matrilocal-A culture in which young men upon marriage go to live with the brides' families
Mesopotamia- land between the Tigris and Euphrates

Neanderthals-Species of genus Homo that disappeared at the end of the Paleolithic period
Neolithic Age- The New Stone Age between 8000 and 5000 bce; period in which adaptation of sedentary agriculture occurred; domestication of plants and animals
Neolithic Revolution- first agricultural revolution--the transition from hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement
Nomads-  a member of a people who have no permanent home but move about according to the seasons

Olympic Games-the ancient Panhellenic celebration at Olympia in honor of Zeus; held every 4 years beginning in 776 BC

Paleolithic-Old Stone Age, begins around 500.000 years ago and ends with the Mesolithic around 7000 BCE
Vocab by Mariana A-Z, 12/15/10